Breast Cancer Stages

Just like other types of cancer, even breast cancer is divided into several stages and sub stages which is known as stage grouping to help gauge the range of the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body and each stage has different survival rates, with the survival rate at stage 0 being the highest and those at stage IV the lowest.

Usually if the breast cancer is detected in the early stages of its formation, diagnosed correctly and if treatment is started immediately, there are very good chances of recovery.

Breast cancer stages are expressed in roman numerals from stage 0 to stages I, II, III, IV. Then A, B, C are used to denote the sub stages such as stages III A, III B, III C. Following is a summary of the breast cancer stages: Stage 0 is referred to as carcinoma in situ or DCIS. At Stage I the tumor has not reached axillary lymph nodes.

At stage II A, the size of the tumor will vary between 2 cm and 5 cm and it won’t have reached the lymph nodes which are axillary. However, if the tumor is smaller than 2 centimeters in diameter, then lymph nodes which are axillary might have been attacked.

At stage II B, if the tumor is bigger than 5 centimeter, lymph nodes which are axillary will remain unaffected but if the tumor is sized between 2 and 5 cm, then the cancer would have clawed its way to less than 4 axillary nodes.

The same holds true for stage III A, but here if the tumor is sized between 2 and 5 centimeters, then the cancer would have traveled to four or even more numbers of axillary nodes. At stage III B, the tumor may have attacked less than 10 axillary lymph nodes or the skin of the breast or chest wall might have been penetrated.

More than ten lymph nodes which are axillary will have fallen prey to the cancer at stage III C, or internal mammary lymph nodes or infraclavicular lymph nodes or more than 10 supraclavicular lymph nodes. Stage IV is identified with distant metastasis.

Breast Cancer Causes

Thanks to the numerous awareness campaigns surrounding breast cancer, people and women have become more aware of this killer disease that is the number one lethal cancer that increases mortality rate in women followed by cervical cancer. There are many risk factors behind breast cancer but the exact causes are not known.

One probable cause of breast cancer can be genetic predisposition or mutation of genes or changes in DNA because of which cancerous growth is seen in normal breast cells. Some of the uncertain risk factors, for which there is no valid medical basis as such are high fat diets, prolonged use of antiperspirant deodorant in the underarm region, daily use of under wire bra, increased use of push up bra, abortions, breast implants with silicone, pollution, working in night shifts, tobacco smoke etc.

There is hardly any link between these risk factors and breast cancer, but more studies and researches are being conducted to investigate any possible link. Use of cosmetics and special kinds of lingerie as a risk factor is a complete myth/rumor, so do not pay any heed to it.

Certain risk factors

The first risk factor is gender that is; women are 100 times more likely than men to get breast cancer. Age is the second factor with every two out of 3 women who are diagnosed with breast cancer of the invasive type crossing the age of 55 years plus when the condition is detected.

Mutation of genes BRCA2 and BRCA1 can cause breast cancer in 80% of the cases. A family history of breast cancer with very close female blood relatives suffering from breast cancer or a personal history of breast cancer can increase the chances.

Other factors are treatment with DES, previous treatment with breast radiation, very early periods before the age of 12 or late menopause after the age of 55 years, dense breast tissue, racial factors etc. American Indian women, Hispanic and Asian women run a lower risk as do African American women of contracting breast cancer. White women are at the greatest risk.

Other causes or risk factors are lack of exercise, obesity, alcohol, not breast feeding, post menopausal hormone therapy, contraceptive pills, giving birth to children after 30 years or not having children at all.

Breast Cancer Advice Guide

Commonly breast cancer is seen in women, but it is something that affects men as well, in the age group of 60 to 70 years usually and it is called male breast cancer. But women are 100 times more likely than men to get it. A cancerous or malignant tumor growing in the cells of the breast tissue is called breast cancer.

There are 4 stages of breast cancer but if breast cancer is detected early, there are high chances of survival and cure, but in stage 4, the survival odds are really low.

Dry or scaly breasts or nipples, inverted or flat nipples, nipple discharge that is either bloody or clear, persistent tenderness and softness of breast, a breast that remains warm and is hot to touch, pain in breasts or nipples, a sore breast or swelling in the breasts, increase in size of breasts without rhyme or reason, no change in size of breasts even during menstruation, small lump in the breast that can be felt during examination of breast, change in appearance and color of breasts, redness or dark color of breasts etc are the commonly reported symptoms of breast cancer.

There are various different types of breast cancer and some are rarer and more dangerous than others. Sometimes there can be a mixture of different types in one breast tumor or it can be a blend of in situ and invasive cancer. Some of the breast cancer types are ductal carcinoma in situ, Lobular carcinoma in situ, Invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma, Infiltrating or invasive lobular carcinoma and inflammatory breast cancer. Of these the last is very rare and extremely lethal and the mortality rate is also higher at advanced stages. Apart from these, there are other types less commonly seen breast cancers.

Genetic predisposition, mutation of genes, change in DNA, lack of exercise, having children too late in life or not having children at all, early menstruation, late menopause, use of birth control pills, post menopausal hormone therapy, race, family history of breast cancer, personal history of radiation therapy or exposure to radiation, obesity, high fat diet, etc are the risk factors of breast cancer but no exact cause behind breast cancer has yet been pin pointed.

Welcome to Blood Pressure Advice

Blood pressure can be measured of how many times your heart pumps per second and it is the pressure of blood running through your arteries or veins. The faster your heart beats the more force of blood will rush to your arteries and the person will suffer high blood pressure.

There are two ways of measuring the pressure of your blood and it is called systolic pressure where in the blood pressure is measured on how fast your heart pumps blood. Systolic pressure measurement is actually the most common and most used method in testing blood pressure. When your heart is at rest during the beating of your heart and then when your blood pressure drops its called diastolic pressure. The diastolic pressure method of measuring blood pressure is not as commonly used unlike the systolic pressure test.

It comes with the age, the older the person becomes the faster his heart will pump, increasing the blood pressure and normally children have a much lower blood pressure compared to adults. Blood pressure can vary depending on the persons mood. The pressure of blood is normally lower when we are asleep and increased when we are excited, happy, sad or any sudden changes of emotions. Time of the day also plays a role when we talk about changes of blood pressure. During the night blood pressure is normally lower compared in daytime.

The normal blood pressure reading must be lower than 120/80 and 140/90 indicates high blood pressure using systolic and diastolic measurement of reading. If you are experiencing high blood pressure because your heart pumps faster it could lead to a disaster like stroke, damage the kidneys, heart failure eye irritations because the small veins my burst causing hemorrhage in the eye.

Cholesterol plaque and calcium in the arteries clogs or blocks the blood from flowing freely causing the heart to pump faster to deliver the oxygen, vitamins, minerals etc. to the organs and tissues needing these elements. This will result in a lot of medical problems. Proper diet is good advice to lower blood pressure and diets that are less in cholesterol and fats must be take if you are already experiencing high blood pressure.

Hypertension is caused by high blood pressure and can lead to a heart attack if not careful. If your blood pressure reads 180/110, go immediately to the hospital and admit yourself because there is a big percentage that it could result in a heart attack.

Welcome to the Asthma Advice Guide

Chest tightness, shortness of breath, coughing at night or very early in the morning and a whistling sound while breathing are common symptoms of asthma which is a chronic lung disease that narrows and inflames the airways.

Airways constrict during asthma and are lined with mucus during exposures to smoke, cold or warm air, stress and exertion, pet dander, perfume or strong stimulants. Most common trigger among children for constant coughing is a viral illness like common cold.

Unlike individuals not affected by asthma, brisk walking or exercises and stress can leave them short of breath for a while. Usual symptoms of asthma that can range from mild attacks to life threatening episodes where breathing becomes labored and extremely difficult but can be kept under control with a combination of drugs and exposure to healthy environments.

How serious is asthma

Recent studies have increased public awareness as they revealed a growing incidence of asthma among urban children—nearly one in four—in developed countries. In the United States alone, nearly 22 million people are affected by asthma of which 6 million are children.

Researchers have also tried to unravel the complexities causing asthma and have found a combination of genetic and environmental factors to be responsible. But they are still at odds figuring out the real causes of asthma that would have solved some problems regarding the severity of the disease and a person’s response to medication.

Asthma problems start when the airways or tubes through which air passes in and out of the lungs, become inflamed and irritated resulting in swelling in reaction to substances like smoke, perfume or any other strong stimulant.

Asthma is a disease that can’t be cured even if you feel fine. It can flare up very fast and it is very important to treat the symptoms as soon as you realize an episode is about to begin. But with advance sin medical science, it is possible to lead a normal and active life as well as sleep well through the night without interruption.

Those affected by asthma need to work out a strong partnership with the doctor and clinic on their health care network as prompt attention is required in the event of an episode.